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Oncology

Oncologists must first diagnose a cancer, which is usually carried out via biopsy, endoscopy, X-ray, CT scanning, MRI, PET scanning, ultrasound or other radiological methods. Nuclear medicine can also be used to diagnose cancer, as can blood tests or tumor markers. Oncology is often linked with hematology, which is the branch of medicine that deals with blood and blood-related disorders.

Once a diagnosis is made, the oncologist discusses disease stage with the patient. Staging will dictate treatment of the cancer. Chemotherapy — which is defined as the destruction of cancer cells — may be used, as well as radiation therapy. Surgery is used to remove tumors. Hormone therapy is used to treat certain types of cancers, and monoclonal antibody treatments are gaining popularity. Research into cancer vaccines and immunotherapies is ongoing.